Buddha, Brahma & Shankaracharya: A visit to Nala Sopara

The visit to Nala Sopara in March this year had its beginnings in a museum located 85 km away in Mumbai. On one of my many visits to the sculpture gallery of the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, I came across an exhibit which, at first glance, looked like a random block of stone.

Ashokan Edict, Nala Sopara, ShurapakaBut museums don’t exhibit just about any random block of stone, do they? A closer look at the stone exhibit revealed inscriptions and when I read the accompanying information board, discovered that I was looking at the 9th Ashokan Edict. This edict, which dates the third century BCE, had been found at a stupa in Nala Sopara.

I was vaguely aware that Nala Sopara had a Buddhist past, but this was the first time I was hearing about the presence of a stupa there. An internet search revealed that the stupa at Nala Sopara still existed, that it was under the care of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), and also that one could visit it. The same internet search also led me to this fabulous blog post that not only talked about the stupa, but also an ancient temple in Nala Sopara — the Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple.

The result? The first free Saturday that came up saw me headed for Nala Sopara (which is connected by suburban train services from Mumbai) with my friends — Anuradha, Rama and Rupal. 🙂

Nala Sopara 6Previously, Nala Sopara was known as Shuraparaka and in some accounts as Sunaparanta or Sopara. It used to be a major port town with trade links to Mesopotamia (Iraq), Greece, Rome, and Africa among others.

The Buddhist heritage of Nala Sopara is attributed to a merchant named Purna Maitrayaniputra, who became a Buddhist after listening to the Buddha’s sermon on a visit to Shravasti in Uttar Pradesh. On his return to Nala Sopara, Purna built a grand Buddha Vihara, which was inaugurated by Gautama Buddha himself. The stupa, which was “discovered” in 1956, was built later by Emperor Asoka. If accounts from those times are to be believed, then Sopara was a Buddhist hub and quite a happening place in the region.

None of that, however, is visible in today’s Nala Sopara. When the auto-rickshaw dropped us off at the stupa site, it was only the ASI signboard that reassured us that we were in the right place. There was no security, no other visitors, no activity — just a couple of sleepy stray dogs who came up to investigate and then went back to sleep. It was incredibly quiet and peaceful.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Stupa, Emperor Ashoka, Buddha, Buddhism
The Nala Sopara Stupa surrounded by palm trees

The stupa, or rather its collapsed remains, is located in a clearing surrounded by palm trees. I don’t mean to sound irreverent here, but the stupa looked like an ordinary pile of bricks. It didn’t help that there were actual piles of new bricks, probably kept by the ASI for repairs and renovation, lying all around. The main stupa, whose circular base is still intact, is surrounded by smaller, circular structures — probably votive shrines.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Stupa, Emperor Ashoka, Buddha, Buddhism
The collapsed stupa and remains of smaller circular structures, perhaps smaller shrines, can also be seen
Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Stupa, Emperor Ashoka, Buddha, Buddhism
The ruins of the stupa can be seen on the left and to the right are the remains of smaller shrines.
Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Stupa, Emperor Ashoka, Buddha, Buddhism
Marigold flowers and some dried rose petals on the stupa

There are flowers — marigold, shevanti and rose petals — on the bricks and on the ground making me wonder if worship is permitted at the stupa. I get the answer when I come across a little shrine near the stupa. It is very obviously a later addition, put together from the ruins of earlier structures. The shrine has a small idol of the Buddha and perched to one side on a stone is an idol of a meditating monk.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Stupa, Emperor Ashoka, Buddha, Buddhism
The sun shines on the Buddha

I am charmed by the simplicity of the shrine and as I look on, noticing the little details and the flowers and the lamps and the remnants of incense, the sun rays shine directly on the Buddha for a few minutes before disappearing. It is an incredible beautiful sight (see the header of this post for a closer look) and I leave the stupa feeling very special and blessed to have witnessed something like this.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Chakreshwar Mahadev TempleWe head towards the Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple next, which is a short auto-rickshaw rode away. Located opposite the Chakreshwar Talav or pond, this is a Shiva temple. No one is sure of the exact date of the construction of the temple, but it is generally believed to be at least a 1,000-years old.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple
Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple

The original temple structure has long since been destroyed and in its place is a modern, ugly structure with vitrified tiles lining the temple’s interior walls and floors. There are other temples/shrines adjoining the Chakreshwar temple — a Hanuman shrine and a beautiful wooden temple dedicated to Rama. All these temples/shrines share a common compound.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple
The entrance to the Rama temple

The temple compound is full of sculptures lined up against a wall. One man comes up to us and introduces himself as the caretaker of the Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple. He is thrilled with our interest in the sculptures and takes us around the temple, opening the grilled and locked enclosures to enable us to have a closer look at the idols, and photograph them as well.

These are idols and other temple reliefs that were thrown into the Chakreshwar Talav for protection from repeated invasions and fear of destruction. These idols were recovered from the talav in the last decade or so with the bigger ones placed in the temple compound and the smaller ones inside the temple.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple
Sculptures placed in the Chakreshwar Mahadev compound. In this photo (from top to bottom and left to right): Two women; Gajalakshmi; HariHara; Uma Maheshwara; two women worshipping shiva lingams; a large lingam
Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple
Sculptures placed inside the Chakreshwar Mahadev temple. In this photo (from top to bottom and left to right): Surya; a Yogini idol; a Devi; Uma Maheshwara and Ganesha; Vishnu.

Even though I had seen photographs of the sculptures at the Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple in the blogpost I mentioned earlier on, I was unprepared for the magnificence of the most important find from the talav — a large idol of Brahma.

It is not often that one gets to see a Brahma sculpture (till date I have seen only 5 of them) and this one was stunning. With the 3 visible faces, one of them clearly bearded; the hands holding the lamp, the Vedas and the kamandalam — the idol has all the attributes of Brahma. The only thing missing is the rudraksh beads in the lower left hand, which had probably broken off at some time. The Brahma idol is in samabhang or equipoise, state, which seems to suggest that it would have been the main deity in a temple.

I am quite overwhelmed with the awe and reverence I feel for the Brahma idol; it is something that I cannot put down in words here.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple
Lord Brahma in a sthanaka samabhanga posture

As we were getting ready to leave, a local visitor to the Temple came up to us and told us about a temple located 7-8 km away. It was situated on a hilltop, was an old temple, and considered very holy by the locals. Would we like to visit it? Of course we would like to visit it. 🙂

We got directions to the temple — which was simply known as Nirmal after the area in was located in — and set off in an auto-rickshaw. The ride took us through narrow winding roads, past quaint cottages and shops with wooden shutters, past open fields and many small ponds with temples next to them, a large church with a distinctly Portuguese style facade…before a short climb that brought us to our destination.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Nirmal, ShankaracharyaThe freshly painted and decidedly new construction looked nothing like the old temple we were told about. We checked with the rickshaw driver, who assured us that this was the correct site, and the temple was only a reconstruction.I am not convinced, but since we were already there we decide to enter and see the temple for ourselves.

Nala Sopara 23It is past noon and there is no one around apart from us. The marble flooring is hot to the bare feet and we skirt around the edges to explore the various parts of the temple, which more like a complex of shrines of varying ages.

The most interesting shrine is one that is dedicated to Krishna/Vishnu, which also has a host of other idols not normally seen in temples. For example, his wives Rukmini and Satyabhama; the sage Narada; his brother Balarama; and his friend/cousin Uddhava. At the entrance to the shrine is Garuda, painted in a rather violent shade of purple.

The idols have none of the classical aesthetics of the sculptures I have just seen at the Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple. In fact, they are quite crude, but with a charm of their own. I found the depiction of Krishna’s wives — usually shown as benign and adoring consorts — extremely fascinating. They were shown here brandishing weapons ! As for their clothes, instead of the usual lehenga choli I had seen, they clothes here were quite similar to how tribals in Maharashtra dress.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Nirmal, Shankaracharya
Krishna (Vishnu) with his wives Rukmini (left) and Satyabhama (right)

There are also shrines to Dattatreya, Rama, Lakshmana, and Sita, but I don’t linger there beyond a cursory glance. I’m more intrigued by shrines I have never seen before — for example, the warrior sage Parashurama (and the 6th avatar of Vishnu) and his parents Jamadagni and Renuka. I’m sure there is some significance for the shrines being here, but it is not something that I’m able to fathom or find information there.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Nirmal, Shankaracharya
Parashurama (centre) with his father Jamadagni (left) and mother Renuka (right)

While we are exploring the various shrines in the Nirmal Temple Complex, we are joined by a priest from the temple He asks us to follow him so that he can show us the most important part of the temple — the samadhi of Shankaracharya. To say that I am surprised by this bit of information is a bit of an understatement. Granted that I am no expert on Shankaracharya, it still came as a surprise to hear about him in the context of Nala Sopara. I’m so surprised that I forget to take photographs of the samadhi.

When we finally leave Nirmal to make our way back to Mumbai, it is with a mental note to research more about the area and its connection with Shankaracharya at the earliest. An internet search not only revealed answers to the Nala Sopara-Shankaracharya connection, it also gave me an insight into the legends, myths and history that surrounds Nirmal. Here is what I discovered:

According to legend, Nirmal was created by Parashurama. He built many temples, including ones dedicated to the 64 yoginis, and holy ponds (all 108 of them) in the region making it a place of pilgrimage. The influence of Hinduism waned with the rise of Buddhisim in the area. There was a resurgence in Hinduism when Adi Shankaracharya visited Nirmal in the 8th century, and the Swami Vidyaranya, the 5th Shankaracharya of Puri shifted to Nala Sopara. Swami Vidyaranya Samadhi at Nirmal and it was his samadhi we saw that day.

Depending on one’s point of view, myths and legends can be enlightening or exasperating. The way myths and legends get mixed up with history is, perhaps, unique to our country. Take the Yogini temples, for instance. The cult of the Yogini can be traced back to the 8th-10th century CE; and the Yogini sculpture displayed at the Chakreshwar Mahadev temple fits into that time frame. Both are attributed to Parashurama, who is a mythical figure.

Nala Sopara, SHuraparaka, Surapantaka, Nirmal, Shankaracharya I did not have a chance to explore the many ponds and shrines that I saw that day on my way to Nirmal. I’m pretty sure that some of them are the ponds and temples that Parashurama is supposed to have built. The way we see and attribute sacredness to  everything is also unique to us.

When I set out that morning for Nala Sopara, it was supposed to be a nice, fun trip to see a stupa and a temple. It was all that and more in the nicest possible, unexpected way, especially since Nala Sopara doesn’t give any hint of its heritage.

Not when you disembark from the local train at the railway station. Not when you walk out of the station to see the usual chaos of people, vehicles and hawkers. Not when you see that it is like any badly planned outlier to a megapolis exhibiting unchecked growth. And yet, behind all this is a Nala Sopara where mythology, legend and history have intersected and created many stories to share.

Nala Sopara is a place that I stumbled across accidentally, and it is a place that I hope to uncover story by story. 🙂


  1. Nala Sopara is on the Western Suburban line. Any Virar-bound local train will halt at this station.
  2. Auto-rickshaws are the best way to travel within Nala Sopara. Do remember to negotiate the fare before hiring one.
  3. The Government of Maharashtra is planning to introduce a Buddhist Circuit beginning with Nala Sopara. You can read more about it here.

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24 thoughts on “Buddha, Brahma & Shankaracharya: A visit to Nala Sopara

  1. Superb post, Sudha. you have beautifully wound the entire trip in a single post, something i doubt i will be able to do… which reminds me that i have yet to write about the trip…. and am still not sure how to put down my experience and thoughts in words.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks, Anu. There were times when I felt it was rambling and wanted to split the post into 3, but that didn’t seem to work either. And finally, this is the post that emerged. 🙂

      Good luck withe writing your post.


  2. WoW! You make the relatively mundane take on a completely different light. I love these blogposts more which bring out the extraordinary in the apparently ‘ordinary’. More power to you.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Having been there during the monsoon season, I had a totally green grass covered stupa in my pictures unlike your brown brick stupa!!! Also missed the Brahma statue as I think it was discovered later.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you, Pathbreakingwriter. Vasai and Nalasopara have a rich history and I have just about scratched the surface. There is so much more to see there and it is not just religious. I want to search for the port, the area’s military history…


  4. Nallasopara is a place I dont even think of visiting because of the squalor in and around the railway station. The Mahadev Chakreshwar temple looks very interesting. Maybe someday, I will make it.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Lol. I don’t think anybody thinks of Nala Sopara to have anything interesting there. But just think about the what a place it must have been along with Vasai, when Mumbai was just a bunch of swampy and marshy islands. Do visit the place, beyond the station lies a charming little town.

      Liked by 1 person

    1. Delighted to see you here, Edwina. A very warm welcome to “My Favourite Things”. I’m so glad you liked the the post. Hope you get to visit Nala Sopara soon. 🙂

      And when you do, and if you have the ime, do visit the 500 year old Holy Cross Church, reportedly built in 1588. I didn’t have time to go there.


  5. To discover places which are so unique is the real kick of a fellow travel blogger and reading such posts is the vicarious kick that I just received last three odd minutes 🙂 Now please be kind and also suggest us ways to reach it from pune 😀


  6. I have been living in nalasopara for 15 years now. Never knew the chakreshwar temple was so ancient. I go for my morning walks every single day to the talav. Clearly I need to keep my eyes wide open the next time.


    1. Hi Mrunmayee. Welcome to “My Favourite Things” and thank you so much for stopping by and commenting.

      My teacher used to say that there was probably a Devi/Yogini Temple with the principal deity being Chakreshwari. How and when that became a Shiva temple called the Chakreshwar Mahadev Temple is a mystery.


  7. Presently residing in California, I come from the one of the villages in the immediate vicinity of Nirmal Church/Temple. Have catholic heritage going back to almost 400 years since the time of Portuguese invasion of Vasai. Our ancestry goes back to the Samvedi Brahmin society established by Parshurama on island of Vasai. We are considered direct descendants of the disciples of Parshurama who settled in Vasai and our mother tongue (spoken both by local Brahmins and Catholic villagers from North Vasai.) is called Samavedi (a distant dialect of Marathi). Ancestrally, classical musicians and dancers we were the Nayaks and Gayakas considered to have migrated from Orissa. As per one of the legend we could have been some of the Kalinga inhabitants who were deported out westwards by Ashoka after the Kalinga war.

    Having ruled for more than 150 years, the Portuguese must have converted entire Vasai to Catholicism. It was likely only after the Vasai war that about half the population reconverted back to Hinduism. There are no concrete records or even legends among the locals of any Portuguese atrocities. The fact that half the native population of Vasai. remains catholic to-date with catholic villages completely intertwined with Hindu villages is testament to the fact that the re-conversion of the locals to Hinduism was likely voluntary and indicates the secular doctrine of the Peshwas (voluntary conversion probably came with offer of land, which explains why Hindu villages traditionally owned more land than catholic villages). Whether the conversion to Catholicism was forceful is debatable, or everyone would have reconverted with the opportunity provided by the peshwas. The local hindu and catholic communities have had closed relations as I experienced throughout my childhood. Some of us actually know our ancestral Hindu surnames!!

    Vasai like Mumbai is an island and the present Marshland (kharland) surrounding the railway lines was part of the sea that came inward from both north and south sides. Sopara was an ancient sea-port from where king David imported gold! Google the map of Nirmal carefully and notice that the lakes surrounding the Nirmal, Sopara, Gaas were likely historically connected together as they appear to be remnants of larger historic water-structure. The present land withing these lakes (called the Shivar) is likely the land of the legend that Parshurama claimed to have conquered from the sea. Whether that legend is true or not, there is little doubt the Shivar land was historically an ocean bed. I always wondered why we got only mud when locals dug wells in Waadis (highly cultivable land) in the villages surrounding Nirmal, but got lots of sand and seashells when digging wells in the Shivar area just couple kilometer away. As kids, we used to play with the seashells from the wells!!.

    Nirmal Yatra is the second largest in the state; it runs from the Nirmal temple up to the Nirmal church and the Yatra period is linked to the festivals of both the temple and the church. There are several additional historic temples in Vasai and there are ancient sculptures found in the waadis including one in our waadi in Nirmal. One of the bells from the Vasai fort church was taken by the Peshwas and is now in the Vhithaal’s temple in Phandharpur.

    Historically, the Vasai island was heavily influenced by major religions and cultures. The Pandavas per legend were stationed in Sopara for some time during their Vanvas. Google historic maps of India and one begins to get some understanding of the historic relevance of Sopara. If the outcome of the Vasai war to be otherwise, we would be looking at Sopara as the downtown of Mumbai.


    1. Hello Richard. Thank you so much for stopping by and taking the time to comment here and give such rich additional information, most of which I was not aware of. You have enriched the post and the comment section with your additional input for which I am very grateful.

      Thank you once again.:)


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