Stories in Stone: Arjuna’s penance or descent of the Ganga?

Stories in Stone is all about sculptures — either standalone or entire narrative panels. Each post in this series will showcase one such sculpture, look beyond its iconography and deconstruct the details in an attempt to understand the idea and/or the story it conveys.

The UNESCO world heritage site of Mahabalipuram or Mamallapuram is extraordinary for the sheer number and variety of monuments, as well as their scale and design. Rock-cut temples, structural temples, relief panels and more vie for attention, each one more captivating than the rest. Though a fair number of the monuments are incomplete or unfinished and weathered, their beauty is not diminished.

The monuments at Mahabalipuram have been the subject of many a study, but none more so than a large relief panel carved on a granite cliff. It is a panel that has led to debates and divisions among art historians over what it depicts or denotes or refers to — Arjuna’s Penance or the Descent of Ganga [1]

Before I narrate their stories and discuss why the panel could be one or both or maybe neither, let us take a close look at the various elements that make up this panel. A real close look beginning with photograph below (please click on the picture to see a full size version).

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative Networks This relief panel faces the seashore or the Bay of Bengal, which is not apparent today due to modern-day constructions. But more than a millennium ago, when Mahabalipuram was a thriving and important port town, this was the first thing a visitor alighting at the port would see. Today, however, there is no direct access from the seashore, and the approach is by road that runs parallel to the panel. A viewer has to divide attention between looking at the panel and keeping an eye out for vehicles passing by.

Now imagine, for the purpose of this post at least that there is no traffic to look out for and there is nothing but the panel in front of you and the Bay of Bengal behind you.

When you stand before the panel and see it in its entirety, it is impossible not to be awed or overwhelmed to see the details of the 100+ animal, human and animal-human figures carved on the rock face, each one vying for attention. Some will catch your attention immediately, while others become discernible only after the first, second or maybe third look.

As the details start settling in, one of the first things you will notice is a natural cleft on the rock face that divides it into two sections with most figures on either side of the cleft turned towards it.

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksThis natural cleft has carvings of (in descending order, literally) a seven-hooded Naga, a three-hooded Nagini, and a snake with one hood. The Nagini is particularly beautiful and has a serene expression on her face as she contemplates or meditates on something. Since snakes are associated with water, they are symbolic of the presence of a water body here. [2]

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksLet us look at the section on the right of the cleft (please click on the picture to see a full size version). The elephants grab your attention immediately, not just because of their size, but because they are so life-like and so beautifully detailed. While the adult elephants look calm and majestic, the calves that you can see between the legs of the adults look playful and naughty.

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative Networks Just above the elephants are a whole range of supernatural flying beings comprising both vidyadharas and kinnaras (half bird and half human). There are also lions and birds (ducks?) interspersed between these supernatural beings.  As mentioned earlier, all the figures whether animal or divine, face the cleft.

There is another interesting detail that I would like to introduce you to at this stage, but will discuss it later in this post — a cat that is carved somewhere between the cleft and the trunk of the first elephant (please click on the photo below to see the details).

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksNow for closer look at the section on the left, where all the figures, with one exception face the cleft. This side of the panel is horizontally divided into two — an upper, fully sculpted portion and a lower almost bare, perhaps unfinished portion. A small section of the lower portion near the cleft has some figures — an emaciated man, probably an ascetic, deep in thought outside what looks like a temple/shrine (please click on the picture to see a full size version), a few more human figures praying or doing obeisance, a vidyadhara couple and a monkey.

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksThe supernatural vidyadharas and kinnars are present on this side as well, though they are lesser in number as compared to the other side. From the lions, deer, boars(?) and birds, as well as human figures that look like hunters, this part of the panel could depict a forest (please click on the pictures below to see full-sized version).

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksMahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksMahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksAnd now we come to the two most important figures in the entire panel — a four armed figure, which immediately points to His divinity and an emaciated, bearded figure standing on one leg. We can immediately recognise the emaciated figure as the same one we saw earlier deep in thought outside a shrine.

The four-armed God is Shiva, who can be recognised by his attributes. One of his right hands holds his weapon, probably a trishula or trident, but centuries of weathering makes it appear more like a spear now. One of his left hands is in the varada mudra or the gesture of giving boons. Shiva is accompanied by his dwarfish, pot-bellied ganas, and one of them has a lion’s face carved on his belly! [3]

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative Networks Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksSo, what does the panel convey? As mentioned  previously, there are two main schools of thought regarding this.

The first says that this panel is all about Arjuna’s Penance from the Mahabharata. Arjuna, the third of the Pandavas, undertook severe austerities to please Lord Shiva and obtain the Pashupatastra, a weapon that would ensure their victory against their enemies, the Kauravas. The above detail can be considered the moment when Shiva appears in front of Arjuna to hand over the Pashupatastra.

The second is the story of the Descent of Ganga, a sub-plot in both great epics — the Ramayana and the Mahabharata — and also one that revolves around austerities. This time it is King Bhagiratha who prays to the Gods for divine intervention to end a severe drought on earth. Moved by his penance, the river Ganga agrees to come down to earth provided someone could manage her destructive flow when she descended from the heavens. Bhagiratha undertook another round of austerities and pleased with his devotion, Shiva agrees to capture Ganga in his locks. The above photograph can be considered to be the moment when Shiva appears before Bhagiratha and agrees to ‘manage’ Ganga.

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative NetworksOnce you have seen the details, you will realise that Shiva and the ascetic doing penance are the most important figures in the panel, and your eyes keep getting drawn towards it. The next logical question would be — who is the emaciated ascetic? Arjuna or Bhagiratha?

The answer would depend on the larger narrative(s) surrounding these two principal figures. Depending on how you see the connections or the disconnects, you’ll realise that one or both fit within the greater narrative. You’ll also realise that there are gaps and unconnected sub-narratives in the panel.

The other figures in the panel on the left seem to have no connection with the two main figures, except for the ascetic — who could be Arjuna or Bhagiratha — lost deep in thought in the lower portion. Though the hunters and the animals indicate a forest setting, there is nothing to say that they are connected with the ascetic or Shiva. The cleft with the snake carvings point towards a water source (that could be Ganga) near the ascetic.

Another important point to be noted is that the two halves on either side of the cleft seem to have no connection with each other, at least none that I can discern. But the one on the right does exhibit a certain light-heartedness and joyousness in the way the elephants and the supernatural beings are depicted. Could it be a celebration of sorts for reward for the austerities completed? For a victorious Arjuna or for the Ganga descending from the heavens?

Let us now go back to a detail that I had pointed out earlier in this post and one that needs greater discussion — the Yoga Cat or the Yogi Cat, who (almost) mirrors the pose of the ascetic. The cat’s eyes are open and surrounding him are a bunch of what look like adoring rodents.

Mahabalipuram, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Arjuna's Penance, Descent Of Ganga, Relief Panel, Narrative Networks

This is the depiction of a story from the Panchatantra about a ‘holy’ cat who lives on the banks of a river, is a vegetarian, practices austerities and dispenses boons. The ‘holy’ cat’s ‘devotees’ are rodents who bring him food and when no one is looking the cat eats them up too ! A classic case of beware of false ascetics.

Various accounts refer to the Yoga/Yogi cat as the humour element or even the parodic element in this panel. Perhaps it is. But for me, it is this small, but very important detail, that points to the fact that what you see is not what you get. In other words, think before deciding on what the panel is all about.

Is it Arjuna’s Penance or Descent of the Ganga? Or neither? Or something else? Or just a set of random carvings on a cliff face?

If there is something that I have learnt about classical Indian art, it is this — it is never random, it is rarely literal, it is highly symbolic and it can be esoteric and abstract. It is often open-ended giving a lot of scope for interpretation and puts the onus of understanding on the viewer. This is one such work of art.

What do you think this panel is all about? Arjuna’s Penance or Descent of the Ganga? Neither of these? Or something else? I’d love to hear your views on this.


  1. This post draws upon the 1994 paper by Dr. Padma Kaimal on “Playful Ambiguity and Political Authority in the Large Relief at Mamallapuram” in Ars Orientalis (Vol. 24, pp. 1-27). Needless to say, though the idea put forward in this post is not original, the words are all mine. A very special thanks to my friend R, who sent me this paper to read. I will forever be grateful to her for literally opening my eyes to the debate around this panel, which in turn triggered off ideas for this series. ……………………………………………………. ………………….
  2. Though I haven’t seen it, it is said that during the rains, the run off flows down the natural slope of the rock and down the cleft to collect as a pool at the base of the panel. This gives the impression of the elephants are frolicking near a water body. ………………………………………..
  3. Doesn’t this remind you of Pulikkali, a folk dance from Kerala, where the dancers tiger/leopard faces on their chests and bellies?

Stories in Stone: Arjuna’s penance or Descent of Ganga | The Chamunda of Chandabhaga | Shiva appeases Parvati |

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22 thoughts on “Stories in Stone: Arjuna’s penance or descent of the Ganga?

  1. You have such a keen eye for details! I have been following your posts, but I got inclined to commenting after reading this, perhaps because Mahabalipuram has been a topic of interest during my architectural course. I have yet to visit the site but you have given such a beautiful picture of the glory of the site. As to which theory it seems to portray, Arjun’s Penance or the Descent of Ganga, aren’t the temples at Mahabalipuram supposed to be a representation of the Pandavas? Please correct me if I am mistaken. Not that that necessitates either one of the theories definitely. And I have an absolute love for history, but I am yet to develop a better disposition towards remembering ALL with clarity, so while I have a generic idea of the theories, their backstories, and the temple site itself, details evade me often. But thank you for the post, enjoyed it immensely! It’s also inspiring, because I am on the beginning stages of recording my writings in a blogger website myself. Thank you, again!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Welcome here, RapidReaders2105 and thank you so much for stopping by and commenting your appreciation.

      In India, we love to associate anything with the Mahabharata or the Ramayana for it seems to give it some legitimacy. Considering the number of sites scattered all over the country, the Pandavas and Rama and Lakshmana are the best travelled people I have come across. I’m envious of them!

      Yes, there are a group of structures called the Pancharathas or Pandava rathas – so called because they are 5 in number. The most graceful one is called the Draupadi Ratha, the largest one is Bhima Ratha, and so on..

      And you must, must visit Mahabalipuram. Architecturally or from the perspective of art, the monuments of Mahabalipuram are stupendous.


    1. The mode of narration used in the panel is what Vidya Dehejia, the art historian, terms as narrative networks. In other words there are stories within the larger panel with principal characters being repeated in various parts in the same panel. This technique is used quite a bit at Ajanta Caves.

      At Mahabalipuram, the ‘thinking’ rishi is before the penance so his hair is neatly coiled and he looks better fed too. In the one where he is standing in the penance mode, he is emaciated and his hair is probably matted. Therefore he looks quite different. But both are the same person and whether Arjuna or Bhagiratha, they were not old when they were supposed to have done the penance.


  2. The post is so detailed and interesting. Your keen eye for detail brings the panel alive. I was not aware of the yogi car story. But what it implies about the rest of the panel is sceptical.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you, Lata. The ‘Stories in Stone’ series has been in the making for more than a year now and it was far more difficult to write than I thought it would be. Hope the ones I will be writing in future will be less difficult to write.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. Very interesting interpretation. In my opinion, Indian art, literature and culture all leave a wide scope for interpretation and need to be looked at with more than an academic bent of mind to get to the essence of the original work.

    And hey, congrats on your 500th post and your new domain, Wish you many more milestones and laurels in the years to come!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you for wishes, Zephyr. 😀

      My view is that we need all kinds of views and opinions, including academic, to get a better understanding of a topic, a work of art, etc. Sometimes, as in this case, I found the linkages made in the article by Padma Kaimal very useful as it gave me a perspective that I hadn’t even thought of. The debates and differring points of views also help in widening the scope of interpretation. So whether academic or non-academic, objective or subjective I welcome all views.


  4. This was a great read, Sudha. I loved how you describe so many important details of this famous panel. I have been there a few times and every time have been awed by this panel and also the one on Durga Mahishasurmardini. The details on that one are also just marvelous. But there is also something beyond the details of the figures in these special works, isn’t there? Something that brings all the details together, something that binds them in a deeper meaning or symbolism. Maybe that is the inner state or consciousness of the sculptors who worked on these remarkable panels, not just as a mere show-off of their talent but as an expression of their dedication and devotion, as a means to grow in consciousness through a dedicated work that came most naturally to them. That’s the sense I get whenever I visit these older temples.

    Congratulations for the 500th post.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you very much for your wishes, Beloo.

      I love old temples too; the older it is, the more I love it. I guess all the vibes that an old structure has absorbed over the years, decades and maybe centuries makes them the way they are.

      What I like about ancient or classical Indian art is that even though the artists followed certain rules or philosophies, each one created a unique piece. Even though the style could be identified, no two sculptures were ever the same. It is believed that there were artists’ guilds that carried out the work. The patron would only give the idea and the artists would execute it.

      This was the best possible combination of devotion and creativity. 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

  5. This is superb, Sudha! I am so tempted to lift the idea and start the same series 😀 about this particular one, I myself lean towards it being Bhagiratha’s penance… for the simple reason that if it indeed had been Arjuna, there would have been more importance given to the story of both Shiva and Arjuna hunting the same boar, and it would have been shown somewhere among all the other scenes. As it is, the existing scenes, including the animals could depict the forests and the creatures which would, apart from the people, benefit from Ganga’s descent. just my thoughts of course…and looking forward to more in this series!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you, Anu. Please, please steal the idea. The more people who write about classical Indian art, the merrier.

      The absence of Shiva and Arjuna hunting the boar, in the case of Arjuna’s penance or the absence of Shiva lifting a lock of his hair to receive Ganga in the case of descent of Ganga is, I feel deliberate. Even though I lean towards the theory of this panel being a representation of the descent of Ganga, I feel that there are enough disconnects to keep it vague and open ended. And I like the fact that it is so.

      I also like the fact that the panel allows for multiple views and the scope for everyone to interpret it differently. After all, we all look at the same things in so many different ways.


  6. First congratulations on your 500th post and new domain!

    This post is so interesting. It’s like a puzzle that can be unraveled the way an observer wants but you have remarkably explained in a way that seems to be the most accurate. Yes, the yogi cat interpretation seems to be so true and it’s surprising for me to learn from your description how the cat and Arjuna/Bhagirathi have the same pose! I have not visited this place, but would love to.
    Looking forward to reading a lot more of Stories in Stone.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you and thank you again, Atula. As always, I’m delighted to see you here. 🙂

      Though I lean towards the ‘Descent of the Ganga’ explanation, there are times when I am not so sure. Each time, I see the pictures, my mind and conviction on what the panel denotes wavers. I would love to know what you think of this when you do visit Mahabalipuram.

      I’m very excited about this series and hope to do at least one every month. Fingers crossed. 🙂


  7. Sudha, what a wonderful article.
    So it really is an interpratation of every human life which is ” never random, rarely literal, is highly symbolic and it can be highly esoteric and abstract. It is often open-ended giving a lot of scope for interpretation and puts the onus of being human on the person who lives it “

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you so much, Mahijit ji. I know you read my blog, but a formal welcome to “My Favourite Things” is warranted here.

      I never looked at the words that you have quoted from the post as “an interpretation of every human life”, but you are so right. Thank you so much for the sharing that insight here. Looking forward to more such from you.


  8. Beautiful post. For a second I was wondering if the emaciated ascetic actually represented Bhringi but then there is no carving of Ardhanariswara to support that logic. Personally I dont think it represents either of these as 1) If this indeed was the depiction of descent of Ganga, then I would have expected a carving of lord Shiva with matted locks and ganga flowing down. 2) The iconography of Arjuna’s penance is very distinct and in most temples, the boar incident is the highlight. Hence I have my own doubts if this represents Arjuna’s penance.

    This relief could also easily represent famous local folk lore of Lord Muruga and Surapadman. The lion could represent simhamukha – surapadman’s brother and the snakes could represent the other form of Lord Muruga (worshiped in snake form in a lot of places in Karnataka & AP). Again this is just conjecture based on my limited knowledge of mythology, history and Indian art.

    Thanks again for sharing this!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hello RJ. Welcome to my blog and thank you so much for stopping by and commenting. And also for giving an entirely new interpretation for the panel. Let me mull on this and revert to you.

      Thanks once gain. 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

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